Daily Archives: April 16, 2015

Arms Control and International Security: Using Diplomacy to Advance the Long-term Sustainability and Security of the Outer Space Environment

As prepared

Introduction

Thank you for your kind introduction and the opportunity to speak to you today.

My name is Frank Rose, and I am the Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control, Verification and Compliance. It’s a pleasure to be back at the Space Symposium, and I’d like to thank Elliot Pulham and all the sponsors for inviting me back again.

By way of introduction, while I am the Assistant Secretary for Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, my work at the State Department is focused on enhancing strategic stability around the world. Arms control, verification and compliance are some of the tools we use to enhance strategic stability and reassure our allies and partners that we will meet our security commitments. Given the importance of outer space to our national security, we also work on efforts to ensure the long term sustainability and security of the outer space environment.

This morning I would like to discuss steps the United States is taking diplomatically, in concert with international partners to address the growing threats to space security.
 

Threats to the Space Environment

First, the threat to outer space is real and growing. As Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said in his recent Congressional testimony,

“Threats to U.S. space systems and services will increase during 2015 and beyond as potential adversaries pursue disruptive and destructive counterspace capabilities. Chinese and Russian military leaders understand the unique information advantages afforded by space systems and services and are developing capabilities to deny access in a conflict.”

In particular, China’s continued development of anti-satellite weapons remains a major challenge to the outer space environment. China’s 2007 anti-satellite test left thousands of pieces of debris in orbit that continues to threaten the space systems of all nations.

The 2010 U.S. National Space Policy makes it clear that it is not in the interest of anyone for armed conflict to extend into space. It states,

“The United States considers the space systems of all nations to have the rights of passage through, and conduct of operations in, space without interference. Purposeful interference with space systems, including supporting infrastructure, will be considered an infringement of a nation’s rights.”

It also states that,

“the United States will employ a variety of measures to help assure the use of space for all responsible parties, and consistent with the inherent right of self-defense, deter others from interference and attack, defend our space systems and contribute to the defense of allies space systems, and if deterrence fails, defeat efforts to attack them.”

It is not in the international community’s interest to engage in a space weapons arms race. Such a race would not bode well for the long-term sustainability of the space environment.

Indeed, protecting U.S. national security by preventing conflict from extending into space in the first place is a major goal of our diplomatic engagements. In that regard, we work to prevent conflict from extending into space via two diplomatic tracks; strengthening our deterrent posture, and encouraging responsible behavior to prevent mishaps, misper­ceptions, and the chances of miscalculation.

Strengthening Our Deterrent Posture

First, we use diplomacy to gain the support of our allies and friends. We have established numerous space security dialogues with our Allies and Partners. These dialogues help them understand the threat, as well as our diplomatic and national security goals, which is critical in persuading them to stand by our side, often in the face of tremendous pressure from our adversaries. Not only have I made numerous trips to meet with our allies in Canada, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific, I have also visited India (where we held our first space security dialogue this March), South Africa, and elsewhere in Africa to raise U.S. concerns about the threats to space systems and to discuss the way forward diplomatically. Furthermore, our Department’s leadership has also carried our message in numerous bilateral and multilateral dialogues.

Diplomacy also prepares the way for closer military-to-military cooperation and allied investment in capabilities compatible with U.S. systems. We work very closely with our interagency colleagues in the Department of Defense to make sure our efforts are synchronized so that investments by our allies and friends contribute to strengthening the resilience of our space architectures and contribute to Space Mission Assurance. The resulting deterrent effect created by such a web of integrated capabilities is greater than the sum of its individual parts.

For example, the Department of State works closely with the Department of Defense on Space Situational Awareness (or SSA) information sharing agreements with foreign partners. The United States has found international cooperation on SSA to be important, as international partnerships bring the resources, capabilities, and geographical advantages. We have also worked to strengthen military-to-military cooperation in satellite communications and space-based maritime domain awareness.

Promoting the Responsible Use of Outer Space

Second, we use diplomacy to promote the responsible use of outer space and especially strategic restraint in the development of anti-satellite weapons.

Diplomacy has an important role in responding to the development of anti-satellite weapons developments that threaten the outer space environment. Responding both privately and publicly to tests of anti-satellite systems is a critical component of our diplomatic strategy.

For example, in 2007, China faced tremendous international pressure following its destructive ASAT test, and this response from the international community appears to have been a factor in China changing its approach. We have not seen a destructive ASAT test since then, although China did conduct a non-destructive test of this system in July 2014. I have not been shy about expressing the U.S. Governments concerns about Chinese anti-satellite tests directly to our Chinese counterparts. We need to continue to call out the disruptive actions of countries like Russia and China both publicly and in cooperation with our allies and partners.

The Department of State is also using diplomacy to reduce the chances for conflict extending into space through the promotion of responsible international norms of behavior, both bilaterally and multilaterally. Norms matter because they help define boundaries and distinguish good behavior from bad behavior.

For example, we have discussed preventing mishaps and reducing potentially destabilizing misperceptions or miscalculations with China.

In addition, and very importantly, through bilateral and multilateral dialogue and diplomatic engagement we seek to identify areas of mutual interest and hopefully reach agreement on how to prevent those interests from being harmed in peacetime, and in conflict.

During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union found many areas of mutual interest in avoiding potentially destabilizing actions. The 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, started a fifty-plus-year string of bilateral arms control treaties and agreements with the Soviet Union, and later the Russian Federation. We also came to agreement in many other realms, including chemical and biological weapons.

Simply stated, if the United States and the Soviet Union could find areas of mutual interest in the realm of nuclear deterrence and chemical weapons — with the tensions and stakes as high as they were — then in today’s climate we should be able to find areas of mutual interest among all space-faring nations regarding space security.

Indeed, I would argue that it is reasonable to assume that most nations, if not all nations, would find it to be in their national interest to prevent conflict from extending into space, knowing that such conflict would degrade the sustainability of the space environment, hinder future space-based scientific activities, and potentially reduce the quality of life for everybody on Earth if the benefits of space-based applications were eroded. Convincing other nations, including China and Russia, of this objective is the role of diplomacy.

The United States and China have already implemented some bilateral transparency and confidence building measures (or TCBMs) to prevent the generation of additional debris in space. As part of the 2014 U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue, led by Secretary of State John Kerry, we reached agreement on the establishment of e-mail contact between China and the United States for the transmission of space object conjunction warnings. Not only does this communication help prevent collision between objects in space, it will help to develop trust and understanding between the United States and China.

Over the past few years the United States has also supported a number of multilateral initiatives that should reduce the chances of mishaps, misperceptions and potential miscalculations. Multilateral TCBMs are means by which governments can address challenges and share information with the aim of creating mutual understanding and reducing tensions. Through TCBMs we can increase familiarity and trust and encourage openness among space actors.

One of the key efforts that we have been pursuing is working with the European Union to advance a non-legally binding International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities. The Code would establish guidelines to reduce the risks of debris-generating events and to strengthen the long-term sustainability and security of the space environment. Among the draft Code’s most important provisions is a commitment for the subscribing States to refrain from any action — unless such action is justified by exceptions spelled out in the draft Code — that brings about, directly or indirectly, damage or destruction of space objects. We view the draft Code as a potential first step in establishing TCBMs for space.

The State Department is also leading U.S. efforts in the framework of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) to move forward in the development of a draft set of guidelines for sustainable space operations to include ways to prevent the generation of space debris.

Another important recent effort was the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) study of outer space transparency and confidence-building measures. That UN group, for which I served as the U.S. expert, published a consensus report in July 2013 endorsing voluntary, non-legally binding TCBMs to strengthen sustainability and security in space. The United States subsequently co-sponsored a resolution with Russia and China referring the GGE report’s recommendations for consideration by the relevant entities and organizations of the United Nations system.

These diplomatic efforts contribute to reducing misperceptions and miscalculations and help lower the chance of conflict extending into space.

I would like to add one more thought for your consideration. If we do not lead with active diplomacy on international space security issues, it is more likely that others will seek to fill the diplomatic vacuum with initiatives that meet their own national interests without regard for the broader interests of the international community.

The United States has focused on TCBMs over the last several years because these can make a real difference in the near term. Such measures can lead to greater mutual understanding and reduce tensions.

In contrast, Russia’s and China’s diplomatic efforts to pursue legally binding treaties and other measures do not reduce the chances for mishaps, misunderstanding or miscalculation and provide little or no verification capability to make sure that everyone is playing by the same rules. Moreover, their diplomatic efforts do not address very real, near-term space security threats such as terrestrial-based anti-satellite weapons like the one China tested in 2007.

To be more specific, Russia and China continue to press for a “Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects,” known as the PPWT. Russia also is making concerted diplomatic efforts to gain adherents to its pledge of “No First Placement” of weapons in outer space. These two documents are fundamentally flawed. They do not address the threat of terrestrially-based ASAT capabilities, and they contain no verification provisions. Yet, at the same time, these proposals may gain some support internationally because many countries are attracted, naturally, to the idea of preventing the weaponization of space. As a diplomat, it is my job to explain why support for these Russian and Chinese proposals is misplaced and may even be counterproductive, while offering pragmatic alternatives, such as TCBMs, which demonstrate U.S. leadership and help shape the international space security agenda.

Conclusion

If conflict extends into space, the right to explore and use space for peaceful purposes would be threatened.

If diplomacy fails, and the use of force does extend to space, the United States must be prepared to protect our space capabilities and prevail in conflict. That is absolutely clear.

The goal of our diplomacy, however, is to prevent conflict from extending into space in the first place.

Diplomacy can help strengthen U.S. and allied deterrent posture and help prevent mishaps, misperceptions, and mistrust among nations.

These two diplomatic tracks, supported by other instruments of U.S. national power and the support of our allies and friends, will hopefully persuade any potential adversary that attacking the United States in space would not be in its best interests.

Thank you for your time and attention.

WPP’s Data Alliance Expands With Africa Launch

– Charge is to enhance data-driven solutions and activate a mobile-first data strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa

CAPE TOWN, South Africa, April 16, 2015 /PRNewswire – Data Alliance’s new presence in Africa is aligned to WPP’s strategic vision of helping clients better leverage data in fast growing markets. Based in Cape Town, the operation will bring expertise from WPP’s global network to Sub-Saharan Africa to harness unique data sets and mobile opportunities. The focus is to accelerate development and enhancement of data-driven solutions, plus activate a mobile-first data strategy.

The%20Data%20Alliance WPPs Data Alliance Expands With Africa Launch

The Data Alliance.

Logo – http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20140616/118622

Local WPP companies Ogilvy, Smollan, Acceleration, Barrows, Wunderman’s Aqua and TMARC came together as sponsoring members to help bring Data Alliance to the region. Together, these companies will work closely on projects to enhance the usage of data across WPP solutions, in turn increasing speed, cross-fertilization and decreasing costs.

This launch is part of a campaign in WPP for “data horizontality” – the ability to better leverage WPP’s people, data and technology across the globe.  This model works particularly well in the United States and United Kingdom where Data Alliance is supported by Kantar, GroupM, WPP Digital, Wunderman, KBM Group, JWT, Cohn & Wolfe and Geometry Global. To date, Data Alliance has had success in helping WPP companies better access and leverage data in ways that are more organized, efficient, effective and drive value for clients.

“We are thrilled to help bring Data Alliance to Africa,” said Ben Evans, Managing Director Digital Portfolio of Ogilvy. “How we use data more effectively across marketing communications is becoming an increasingly critical part of the conversation with our clients – both in South Africa and across the rest of the continent.  We see Data Alliance as a powerful way to help us win competitive advantage for all our clients across a very broad range of data requirements.”

“We look at Africa as a region in which we can do some very modern and progressive things with data, in particular with mobile data,” said Devon Tighe, Managing Director of Data Alliance Africa. “The launch of the Cape Town office is in response to client demand to grow data-driven capabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We know that by bringing together a strategic group of companies in Africa, we can help WPP’s agencies better serve clients through data connections that drive smarter decision making.”

Devon Tighe, previously vice president of strategy and operations for Data Alliance, heads the new office as Managing Director. She brings more than 10 years of experience in the colliding worlds of media and analytics to the role. Prior to joining Data Alliance, Devon was a research director at The New York Times where she focused on business strategy and customer analytics. Before heading to the Times, Devon spent six years in research and product development at Dynamic Logic, now part of Millward Brown Digital, a company within WPP’s Kantar unit.

In Africa, WPP companies (including associates) generate revenues of approximately US$650 million and employ over 28,000 people.

About Data Alliance

The Data Alliance is the WPP company that supports the Group’s data business by enhancing access to data and data-driven marketing applications. The Data Alliance leverages a global network of expert leaders in market research, analytics, CRM, media and digital to deliver a solution-neutral and holistic perspective on the Group’s data strategy and solutions. It drives internal and external data partnerships and connects WPP’s centers of excellence to address client challenges in the world of big data. For more information, visit http://www.dataalliance.com/

About WPP

WPP is the world’s largest communications services group with billings of US$76 billion and revenues of US$19 billion. Through its operating companies, the Group provides a comprehensive range of advertising and marketing services including advertising & media investment management; data investment management; public relations & public affairs; branding & identity; healthcare communications; direct, digital, promotion & relationship marketing and specialist communications. The company employs over 188,000 people (including associates and investments) in over 3,000 offices across 111 countries. For more information, visit http://www.wpp.com/.

WPP was named Holding Company of the Year at the 2014 Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity for the fourth year running. WPP was also named, for the fourth consecutive year, the World’s Most Effective Holding Company in the 2015 Effie Effectiveness Index, which recognizes the effectiveness of marketing communications.

Contact

Data Alliance Press
Jennifer Milk
Jennifer.Milk@DataAlliance.com
+1-212-710-2434

Data Alliance Africa
Devon Tighe
Devon@DataAlliance.com

A Pogrom in South Africa

At least five African immigrants in Durban have already been killed in a vicious spate of violence that threatens to spread to other cities. Immigrants make up about 10% of the population of South Africa and  wave of xenophobic violence in 2008 resulted in 60 deaths. “At least five people have died in a wave of violence against foreigners in Durban, South Africa, while thousands more were driven out of their homes in the coastal city. Hundreds of miles away, in the commercial hub of Johannesburg, immigrant shopkeepers fearing copycat attacks have closed their businesses. While no widespread violence has been reported in the city, threatening messages have been circulating on social media. As the Mail and Guardian reports, concerned residents have been issuing messages of their own, taking to the messaging app WhatsApp and SMS text messages to alert others to be vigilant.”  (Quartz http://bit.ly/1PPsZAw)

Thousands of Burundians Are Fleeing to Rwanda…”A dispute over whether President Pierre Nkurunziza can run for a third term – he has not yet announced any such plan – has triggered the worst political crisis since the 12-year civil war in the east African nation ended in 2005. Burundian refugees started crossing the border into Rwanda in mid-March but numbers have swelled in recent days, data from Rwanda’s ministry of refugee affairs showed. At least 1 069 refugees arrived on Tuesday, taking the total to 5,954.” (News24 http://bit.ly/1ywHiom)

Is the FARC Ceasefire Over? Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos has ordered the resumption of bombing raids against FARC rebels after an attack he blamed on the group killed 10 soldiers, a move that will intensify combat after efforts to ease tensions. As part of peace talks with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), Santos last month stopped air raids on rebel hideouts in recognition of a unilateral ceasefire declared in December by the insurgent group. The soldiers were killed in rural southwestern Cauca province in the early hours of Wednesday when the FARC launched an ambush, hurling grenades and firing on them as they sheltered in a covered sports pitch, the army said.” (Al Jazeera http://bit.ly/1DknP9c)

Study of the Day: Global recession linked to rising HIV deaths.  (Journal of Global Health  http://bit.ly/1OeQj71)

Africa

The Presidents of the countries hardest hit by ebola Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea met Barack Obama in the White House yesterday. (Bloomberg http://bloom.bg/1PPqLRy)

The FAO has set aside $4 million to fund projects aimed at strengthening control of diseases affecting food security in eight sub-Saharan African countries. (allAfrica http://bit.ly/1COWyYI)

The return to work continues in Liberia as the Ebola outbreak subsides, led by gains for wage workers and the rural self-employed, while the picture remains mixed in Sierra Leone. (World Bank http://bit.ly/1H8HKdC)

A suicide bomber attacked a U.N. peacekeeping base in northern Mali on Wednesday, killing at least three people and wounding 16 others, the U.N. mission said. (AP

MENA

Islamic State fighters captured more territory outside the capital of Iraq’s Anbar province Wednesday. (VOA http://bit.ly/1OeRdQV)

ISIS has carried out systematic rape and other sexual violence against Yezidi women and girls in northern Iraq, according to research by Human Rights Watch. (HRW http://bit.ly/1ytQJEY)

Asia

China’s economy grew at its slowest pace in six years last quarter, raising fresh concerns over the condition of the world’s second largest economy. (WaPo http://wapo.st/1E2uQ1N)

Acid attacks in India have ravaged the lives of thousands of young women who are forced to live with physical, psychological and social scars. (IPS http://bit.ly/1yuats4)

A new anti-terrorism law in Malaysia is set to revive indefinite detention without charges or trial, which the opposition worries will be used to silence dissent. (VOA http://bit.ly/1b3uLy7)

Child labor has long been a pillar of Myanmar’s economy, but their role has come under increasing international scrutiny as the country opens up after five decades of military dictatorship. (Al Jazeera http://alj.am/1CO4sl6)

The Americas

Ten Colombian soldiers were killed and 20 injured in an attack by the rebel guerilla group FARC in the southwest province of Cauca in violation of the ceasefire. (El País http://bit.ly/1FTLbmP; Spanish)

A lawsuit filed this week alleges Johns Hopkins University and the Rockefeller Foundation conducted a study in Guatemala from 1945 to 1956 in which patients were deliberately infected with STDs. (CNN http://cnn.it/1F6yzeI)

Despite achieving middle-income country status in 2006, Peru’s education system is struggling to keep up. (El País http://bit.ly/1E2vpsg; Spanish)

…and the rest

President Erdogan said Turkey would disregard the EU’s vote on the 1915 mass killings of Armenians, which the pope this week described as genocide. (VOA http://bit.ly/1E2uwQA)

While some families fled eastern Ukraine because of the military conflict, many of the elderly stayed behind and now face a desperate shortage of health care – including basic drugs for pain relief and treatment of chronic illness. (NYT http://nyti.ms/1aUPNhR)

Opinion/Blogs

Survey Offers Rare Window Into Chinese Political Culture (NYT http://nyti.ms/1DhUf3V)

The challenge is the democratization of Cuba (El País http://bit.ly/1FSyo6U; Spanish)

Can extended cost-effectiveness analysis guide the scale-up of essential health services towards universal health coverage? (Lancet http://bit.ly/1EGDwcM)

The fears of Australia’s HIV crisis have faded. The laws of that time should too. (Guardian http://bit.ly/1COX1du)

What Jeff Sachs thinks you should study (Chris Blattman http://bit.ly/1EHvyQE)

Monetary policy in the future (Ben Bernanke http://brook.gs/1H8Ixvc)

Could It Have Been Otherwise? (CFR http://on.cfr.org/1JL6ubI)

Thousands Of Young Women In U.S. Forced Into Marriage (Goats and Soda http://n.pr/1FJCGs6)

Discussion

comments…

Risen Energy et la ville de Wuhai signent un accord pour la fourniture de modules photovoltaïques de 200 MW et de projets à énergie solaire de 1 GW

NINGBO, Chine, 16 avril 2015 /PRNewswire — Récemment, Risen Energy Co., Ltd a signé un contrat à Wuhai avec les autorités de la ville de Wuhai et du district de Haibowan en Mongolie-Intérieure pour la fourniture de modules photovoltaïques de 200 MW et de projets à énergie solaire de 1 GW.

Wuhai est une nouvelle ville industrielle située dans la partie occidentale de la Mongolie-Intérieure. Elle se trouve non seulement à la jonction du nord et du nord-ouest de la Chine, mais également au centre de la zone économique du fleuve Jaune et à la jonction de la zone économique regroupant le Ningxia, la Mongolie-Intérieure, le Shanxi et le Gansu. Son rayonnement solaire total est de 1650 à 1700 kWh/m2/année. Afin de tirer pleinement parti de la région qui comprend de vastes zones montagneuses, des déserts, des réserves de charbon, des zones de restauration minière toutes riches en énergie solaire, Risen Energy investira dans un projet de construction de modules à énergie solaire de 200 MW. Dans le même temps, à l’issue de consultations amicales, Risen créera une société de construction de centrales électriques destinées à mettre en

Risen Energy & Wuhai City Sign Agreement for 200MW of PV modules and 1GW of Solar Projects

NINGBO, China, April 16, 2015 / PRNewswire — Recently, Risen Energy Co., Ltd signed an agreement to supply 200MW PV modules and 1GW of solar project construction in Wuhai City with the governments of Wuhai City and Haibowan district in Inner Mongolia.

Wuhai City is a new industrial city in the western part of Inner Mongolia, and it is not only the junction of northern China and northwest China, but also the central area of the Yellow River Economic area. Plus, it’s the economic area junction of Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi and Gansu. The total solar radiation is 1650-1700 kWh / (SQM/Year). In order to make full use of the area which includes vast mountainous, wasteland, coal reserves, mining reclamation areas and rich solar energy, Risen Energy will invest and construct the 200MW solar modules project. Meanwhile, Risen will set up a power station company to construct 1GW of solar stations during a 3-5 year period in Wuhai City through friendly consultations.

Mr. Wang Hong, the president of Risen Energy Co., Ltd, said that if the agreement is successfully approved, the domestic market share of PV modules of Risen will be expanded. Moreover, it will improve the production and sales of PV modules in China and the exploiting, constructing and operating layout of PV power stations, which is good for the development and long-term planning of Risen Energy.