Daily Archives: March 5, 2015

Huíla – SADC Central Banks Reinforce Financial Security Measures

The chairman of the Subcommittee of the Information Technologies of the Central Banks of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the Mozambican Arlindo Francisco Lombe, said on Friday in Lubango, Huíla province, that the banking institutions of the region created a security device that aim to detect computer financial crimes (Ciber Atack).
Speaking to Angop, under the 20th Annual Conference of the Subcommittee of the referred banks, to end this Friday, Arlindo Lombe explained that the project is important because the SADC financial institutions are more and more being targeted by hacking attacks that aim to undermine their financial system.
He added that many citizens have been using mobile phones or even desktops to accede the financial system of banks and therefore the SADC member countries are reinforcing their cooperation in this segment.
Arlindo Francisco Lombe pointed out the implementation of master programmes, based in terms of security, which are linked to a standard jointly established with the 15 member states of SADC.
According to him, the commercial banks have been targeted by hackers and considered necessary to mention those financial institutions that have already been hacked.
The banker said that the central banks of the community are conducting mechanisms to fight the problem of ATM card skimming, so that each institution, within its financial availability may take necessary measures.
The conference, to end this Friday, gathering directors of information technologies of SADC central banks, is discussing issues related to the strategies of plans recommended in 2014, work of the Central Bank of Mozambique and information of governance project of the information technologies and its progress.
SADC groups Angola, South Africa, Botswana, DR Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Gukurahundi – Apartheid SA-Zim Collaboration

THIS is a continuation of the article by Kent State University’s Professor Timothy Scarnecchia on the Zimbabwean government and apartheid South Africa’s role in the Gukurahundi massacres which Vice-President Phelek-ezela Mphoko recently claimed had nothing to do with President Robert Mugabe and were, in fact, a Western conspiracy.
Historian Sue Onslow has investigated South Africa’s role in trying to make sure Mugabe and Zanu PF did not come to power in 1980.
Onslow sums up South Africa’s strategy after Mugabe’s electoral victory and its impact on the conflict between Zanu and Zapu.
“Mugabe’s victory shocked Pretoria. This drove South Africa back onto violence and subversion in neighbouring countries, rather than trying to manipulate the political process,” she says.
Onslow argues that the involvement of South Africa in supplying a small amount of weapons to Super-Zapu dissidents “rebounded on Zapu/Zipra forces” in the Gukurahundi “as the Mugabe government … was able to stigmatise the disaffected Zipra combatants as stooges of the apartheid state, manipulated by a malevolent and oppressive foreign power”.
South Africa did more to destabilise Zimbabwe in these years, but the support for Super-Zapu dissidents proved to be the most important factor in helping the Zanu PF government rationalise the Gukurahundi.
South Africa’s apartheid president PW Botha launched his “total strategy” to defend South Africa from communist aggression in 1981.
As Stephan Chan describes it, Zimbabwe was not the main military target. Angola and Mozambique were. The idea was to make Zimbabwe and Zambia feel as if they were caught, west and east, in a pincer — so anxious they dared not look south.
This is an important point to remember, how in a Cold War context, Zimbabwe’s relative insignificance in South Africa’s “total strategy” permitted Zanu PF to take advantage of the South African threat internationally while avoiding a direct conflict through co-operation at the highest levels.
The Zimbabwean economy was still almost 75% dependent on South African trade in these first few years, so there was little alternative, but to co-operate with Pretoria.
As Stephen Ellis and Tsepo Sechaba have shown, the South African military attacked ANC targets in Zimbabwe with little opposition. Such attacks included the assassination of the ANC’s Joe Gqabi in Harare in July 1981.
South African agents made a series of bomb attacks against the Zimbabwean government. One of these attacks, in December 1981, was an unsuccessful attempt to kill the Zanu PF central committee members in their Harare headquarters.
The bomb was detonated in a room above, but the central committee had postponed the meeting.
Given the ability by South Africa to act with impunity in Harare, there was little chance that Zanu PF would be able to confront South Africa militarily.
The Zimbabwean government responded by using the existence of these attacks to consolidate power internally by arresting those former white officers allegedly serving as South African agents, Zapu leaders and attacking the party’s supporters.
By 1982, South Africa’s strategy to attack Mugabe had begun to create its desired effects.
As Jocelyn Alexander, JoAnn McGregor and Terence Ranger argue in their history of Matabeleland, of all the South African acts of sabotage between 1981 and 1982, the most important for understanding the Gukurahundi was “Operation Drama” of late 1982, an effort which involved recruiting and arming a Zimbabwean insurgent group dubbed Super-Zapu.
Various South African agents, many of them recruited from the Rhodesian intelligence service, also played a key role in fomenting distrust.
Alexander et al describe the conflict between these South African-trained and armed Super-Zapu and the “pure Zapu” dissidents between 1982 and 1983 with the South African supported ones “never more than 100 (and probably substantially fewer) inside the country”.
Although outnumbered by the “pure Zapu” who wanted nothing to do with South Africa, these Super-Zapu dissidents had better weapons and more ammunition, which was in short supply by 1983. The former Zipra fighters who became dissidents never totalled more than 400.
Joseph Hanlon suggested that the Super-Zapu developed as a response to the deployment of the Fifth Brigade, as South Africa took advantage of the growing anger of former Zipra fighters and civilians living in refugee camps in Botswana.
While Alexander et al stress the small numbers of South African-trained and supplied Super-Zapu, and the response to them by former Zipra dissidents, the reality was that public knowledge of South African support supplied Mugabe, in the Cold War and regional context, the necessary pretext to rationalise the attack on Zapu and Zipra as primarily a response to an external intervention.
In January 1983, the Fifth Brigade of the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), consisting of between 2 500 and 3 500 soldiers, was deployed by Mugabe in Matabeleland and the Midlands provinces to “crush” the dissidents.
Made up almost entirely of former Zanla fighters, the Fifth Brigade’s operation was called Gukurahundi, a Shona term that translates as “the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains”.
It proceeded to terrorise the populations of the Midlands and Matabeleland provinces, leaving thousands of dead civilians and many others traumatised by their terror tactics.
Mugabe’s ability to contain information about Gukurahundi was one reason for the lack of international outcry. The Zimbabwean state invoked curfews and denied the media access to those areas witnessing the worst atrocities.
The state also used Rhodesia-era laws to impose a state of emergency, arrest and detain Zapu leaders, and deport international journalists for exposing human rights abuses.
But another reason was the general sympathy most informed Westerners had for Mugabe and Zanu PF given its role as a Frontline State. The Zanu PF official line — that given the South African support for the dissidents, the response of the Fifth Brigade was warranted — fits well with the anti-apartheid movement’s solidarity with the Frontline States.
But stories of the Fifth Brigade’s atrocities did manage to get out to the wider world. One of the most perceptive commentaries came from the Guardian’s Nick Davies: “The slaughter of innocent villages in Matabeleland is only the most bloody symptom of a government clampdown which has seen thousands detained without trial, opponents tortured, the press muzzled, the courts defied and trade unions brought to heel.
“The rebellion of armed ‘dissidents’ in Matabeleland is a direct challenge to the government’s whole posture. The government’s response has been equally direct — a deliberate and determined campaign to wipe out the dissidents, to liquidate Nkomo’s Zapu party accused of directing them, and to cause such terror among ordinary civilians that their popular support will wither.”
Davies’ reporting presented the realpolitik behind the rhetoric. It shows that there were brave reporters willing and quite capable of unmasking the masquerade at work in the rhetoric and propaganda produced in Harare and echoed in London and Washington.
The views expressed in South African Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) files for 1983 pointed out the failure of Western Cold War powers to criticise Mugabe for the Gukurahundi, but there is also a sense that the Gukurahundi was viewed as a “success” from the South African point of view.
It offered a number of “benefits”, first and foremost making it difficult for the ANC’s military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe to use Matabeleland as a base for training and attacks across the border into South Africa. It also worked to discredit Mugabe’s international reputation as a prime minister representing a party committed to national reconciliation.
It also, paradoxically, pushed Zimbabwe to co-operate with South Africa on military and intelligence issues, however tentatively and mistrustingly.
Bi-annual meetings between the intelligence staff of Zimbabwe’s Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO) and their counterparts in the South African Defence Force (SADF) were held in 1982 and 1983. The SADF notes of a February 7 and 8 1983 meeting in Harare are in the DFA files.
The minutes of this meeting, which took place one month after the Fifth Brigade had been deployed in Matabeleland North, indicate a much less strident tone concerning South Africa’s role in supporting dissidents than that heard in the Zimbabwean media.
The joint intelligence leaders talked about the “role of communist powers in Southern Africa”, “internal terrorism”, and the “security situation in Angola, Mozambique, Botswana and Zimbabwe”.
The discussion reportedly noted that “Botswana is falling heavily under the influence of the USSR and accommodating Zipra, ANC and Swapo, which is a cause for common concern” and that “Zimbabwe does not consider political support of the ANC in the same category as military support.
“For this reason, they provide office facilities to the ANC in Harare, but do not allow them to infiltrate over the RSA/Zimbabwe border”.
At the same time, the CIO stated that the so-called dissident problem in Matabeleland was serious and that the rift between Zanu PF and PF Zapu was deep. They conceded that the Lancaster House formula was partly to blame for this situation.
The Zimbabweans repeated the caveat that “although Mr Mugabe was an outspoken Marxist, it did not necessarily mean that he was in the USSR camp”. The South Africans proposed the formation of a “Joint Crisis Committee” to handle “any matter which caused tension to the relations between the two countries and needed prompt rectification to diffuse the situation”.
The Zimbabweans’ reply was that “such a committee is not deemed necessary as no conflict existed between the two countries”. The South Africans suggested the Zimbabweans should accept PW Botha’s “offer to sign a non-aggression pact and the deployment of monitoring teams on either side of the Zimbabwe border”.
Zimbabwe’s Minister of State for Security, Emmerson Mnangagwa, met personally with the SADF team. According to the SADF report, Mnangagwa took personal credit for obtaining “permission from the Prime Minister (Mugabe) for the SADF visit to Harare and for future intelligence meetings of a similar nature.
He claimed that he initiated the “RSA/Angola and RSA/Mozambique dialogue”. Mnangagwa also stated that “there were no matters in the Zimbabwe/RSA relations that were so serious that it required meetings at ministerial level”.
Mnangagwa’s lack of interest in addressing Zimbabwe’s issues with South Africa directly with the SADF demonstrates the inequality of the relationship between South Africa’s military and Zimbabwe’s, as well as the fear that any formal co-operation would be detrimental to Zimbabwe’s image internationally.
In September 1983, American diplomat Robert Cabelly told the South Africans that “Zimbabwe felt that Mozambique and Angola had in fact let them down by having ministerial meetings with South Africa”.
This is an interesting example of how the Americans and South Africans were hearing different things from the Zimbabweans, especially given Mnangagwa’s taking credit for initiating ministerial dialogue between South Africa and the two countries most affected by South African military intervention. Cold War and regional diplomacy were obviously not on the same channel.
Later, in October 1983, Mnangagwa held a press conference reported in Zimbabwe’s state-controlled Herald newspaper and recorded with commentary in the DFA files. Mnangagwa presented two young Zimbabweans, one 16 and the other 18 years old, who were allegedly trained by South Africa to return to Zimbabwe to fight as dissidents.
These two young men were described as having confessed to murdering “a white farmer, his children and the foreman in the Gwanda area”, of ambushes on government vehicles, of “cutting off the hands of two ZNA soldiers and shooting them west of Beitbridge”, and the “destruction of DDF (District Development Fund) tractors, caterpillars, etc, near Kezi”.
Mnangagwa reported that these two young men had admitted to being in South Africa for four months, where they were allegedly trained to go to Zimbabwe “to unseat Mugabe’s government as he was not fit to rule”.
Their trainers allegedly told them Nkomo was “the right man to govern Zimbabwe” and instructed them to return to “destroy everything and murder farmers as they were the ones who grow food that is eaten by Mugabe’s dogs”.
The DFA commentary pointed out “the fact that Zimbabwe authorities did not raise the matter through the normal channels and instead called an international press conference indicates that this was yet another propaganda exercise to reinforce the destabilisation theme.
“The extent of international media coverage will be an indication of the effectiveness of this attempt to prove SA complicity in dissident activities based on dubious circumstantial evidence”.
To be continued next week.

Casing & Cementation Hardware Market by Equipment, by Hardware Type, by Application – Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019 (PR Newswire)

LONDON, March 5, 2015 /PRNewswire/ — The global casing & cementation hardware market exhibits a lucrative growth potential of about 8% for the next five years. The growth of this market is propelled by rising concerns about safety & environment and the increasing capital expenditure in E&P operations being carried out across the globe. The market is further driven by factors such as increasing drilling activities. The high growth potential in emerging markets and increased use of casing & cementation hardware in shale mining provide new growth opportunities to players in the casing & cementation hardware market.Rising number of ageing and maturing wells & increasing E&P activities for search of new fields is bound to increase the market of casing & cementation hardware, slated to be valued around $2.5 billion by 2019. North America, with its increased focus on technological innovations in the oil & gas industry, is expected to experience the highest revenue growth in the next five years.With increasing energy demands from emerging economies and increasing drilling activities, operators are looking for advanced equipment to make the casing & cementation operations faster and safer. North America would be the largest market because of the willingness of companies in the region to take up capital intensive projects, along with the availability of technical expertise.Onshore casing & cementation hardware, due to large number of operational onshore wells, is expected to dominate the global casing & cementation hardware market. Liner equipment is projected to have the largest market during the forecast period. Subsequently in applications, onshore casing & cementation hardware will dominate the casing & cementation hardware market from 2014 to 2019.This report covers the global casing & cementation hardware market in major regions, namely Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, South & Central America, the Middle East, and Africa under major types that include liner equipment, float equipment, centralizers, wiper plugs, and others.This report analyzes various marketing trends and establishes the most effective growth strategy in the market. It identifies market dynamics such as drivers, restraints, opportunities, burning issues, and winning imperatives. Major companies such as NOV (U.S.), Antelope Oiltools (U.S.), Weatherford International Ltd. ( Ireland), and Vallourec ( France) have also been profiled.Scope of the report- On basis of region:( North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Africa, South & Central America, and the Middle East)- On basis of type:(Liner equipment, float equipment, centralizers, wiper plugs, and others)- On basis of application:(Onshore and offshore)Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/2720690/About ReportbuyerReportbuyer is a leading industry intelligence solution that provides all market research reports from top publishershttp://www.reportbuyer.com
For more information:Sarah SmithResearch Advisor at Reportbuyer.comEmail: query@reportbuyer.com  Tel: +44 208 816 85 48Website: www.reportbuyer.com
SOURCE ReportBuyer

India Bans Rape Doc

The filmmaker has reportedly fled India for fear of arrest. “The documentary, “India’s Daughter,” features an interview with Mukesh Singh, now on death row for his role in the crime, who tried to justify the brutal attack by saying “a decent girl won’t roam around at 9 o’clock at night.” Excerpts from the interview were released on Tuesday as part of an advance publicity campaign. Things moved quickly after that. After a condemnation from the home minister, the Delhi police moved for a restraining order, and a court issued a stay banning broadcast of the film, which was set to be aired Wednesday night by the BBC. (NYT http://nyti.ms/1EhlvCv)
When malaria isn’t malaria…A new study warns that, in Africa, illnesses causing fevers are often misdiagnosed as malaria. For example, the study found that dengue fever is circulating in urban areas of Ghana, but is mistaken for malaria. The findings could trigger a reevaluation of anti-malaria efforts. (VOA http://bit.ly/1CxUCtv)
Still Breaking at Presstime: US Ambassador Attacked in Seoul…US ambassador to South Korea Mark Lippert has been injured by an attacker in Seoul, local media report. (BBC http://bbc.in/1Ehltua)
Child protection whistleblowers who alerted the Australian Human Rights Commission to child sexual abuse, violence and self-harm on Nauru are being investigated by the Australian federal police. (Guardian http://bit.ly/1zYSuoF)
Africa
A bomb planted and remotely detonated by Boko Haram militants near the southeastern Niger town of Diffa has killed two soldiers and wounded a third, Niger military sources said on Wednesday. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1GUc61R)
United Nations sanctions aimed at bringing an end to South Sudan’s civil war would be counterproductive if imposed, the country’s foreign minister said on Wednesday. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1FYknRl)
Prosecutors in Ivory Coast asked judges Tuesday to sentence former first lady Simone Gbagbo to a ten-year prison term on charges of “undermining state security” during post-election violence in 2010-2011 that left nearly 3,000 dead. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1w4tdwW)
Lesotho’s main opposition party has formed a coalition government with other opposing parties after an election failed to provide an outright winner, it said on Wednesday. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1w4tlwe)
Zimbabwe’s tobacco crop will fall to 190 million kilograms this year, down from 216 million kilograms in 2014, an official said on Wednesday, as late planting and heavy rains hit production of the country’s biggest exporter earner. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1GUbTM7)
Flash floods have killed at least 38 people in north-western Tanzania after strong winds and hail battered villages, the president’s office said on Wednesday. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1NhFR10)
Chadian President Idriss Deby on Wednesday vowed to “wipe out” Boko Haram and called on the group’s chief Abubakar Shekau to give himself up, warning that he knew where the militant leader was hiding. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1GUcbCw)
A team from the International Monetary Fund team leading efforts to re-engage Zimbabwe said on Wednesday it will “assess” whether the country has adhered to agreed reforms aimed at normalising its relations with the lender. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1NhFSC5)
Guinea’s economy is likely to take a $2 billion hit from a regional Ebola outbreak that has killed nearly 10,000 people, and the country is relying on mining to drive growth once the virus is contained, the finance minister said. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1DWkH3c)
A proposal by the South African government to limit farm size to 12,000 hectares is a “negotiating tactic” as it tries to press ahead with the redistribution of land to black farmers, the minister of agriculture said. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1DWkE7y)
Tanzania will get a $300 million concessional loan from the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) to help improve roads and other facilities in its commercial capital of Dar es salaam, the bank said. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1DWkEnX)
A pair of oil spills in 2008 and 2009 polluted the waters around the town of Bodo, in Nigeria’s southern Rivers State. A settlement between the Shell oil company and the affected community that was negotiated in January put cash in the pockets of townspeople, but it did not undo the environmental damage to the area around Bodo. (VOA http://bit.ly/1DWkzAK)
The shooting death of a top opposition-allied Mozambican lawyer has analysts concerned that this nation’s violent past has come back to haunt it. (VOA http://bit.ly/1CxUDgY)
MENA
Lebanon made an exception to its border restrictions on Syrian refugees Tuesday to allow in some 20 Assyrian Christians fleeing the Islamic State group, a priest said. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1w4tfVo)
U.S. officials sought Wednesday to tamp down expectations of a substantial preliminary nuclear deal with Iran by the March deadline while working to move past the political dust kicked up by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s criticism of an emerging agreement’s contours. (AP http://yhoo.it/1w4tnUS)
The apparent disintegration of a key Syrian rebel group has dealt a major blow to US efforts to build up a force of moderate fighters to take on the Islamic State group. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1NhFO5s)
Asia
India’s home minister said on Wednesday he would investigate how a film crew managed to interview a death row convict who expressed no remorse for his part in the fatal gang rape of a woman in New Delhi in 2012, an attack that sparked outrage. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1FYknke)
Polio vaccinators across Pakistan are facing increasing resistance and threats as they seek to prevent a growing caseload of sick children. (IRIN http://bit.ly/1DWkq01)
India’s central bank on Wednesday unexpectedly cut a key interest rate by a quarter percentage point, the second such reduction this year as the bank lends support to government efforts to boost economic growth. (AP http://yhoo.it/1FYkkEZ)
A Bangladeshi court on Wednesday upheld arrest warrants against opposition leader Begum Khaleda Zia and called her a fugitive after she again failed to appear to face graft charges that have stoked political tensions. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1NhFP9m)
China needs to better regulate foreign non-governmental organizations operating in the country for national security reasons, an official said on Wednesday, as the government drafts a law that has unnerved many aid groups. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1FYkmNi)
India expects higher rainfall from the monsoon this year after patchy rains affected farm output last season, weather office sources said. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1GUbWYg)
The Americas
Brazil’s attorney general on Tuesday asked the Supreme Court for permission to investigate 54 people, the majority top political figures, for alleged involvement in what prosecutors say is the country’s largest corruption scandal yet uncovered. (AP http://yhoo.it/1FYkfkO)
Results for El Salvador’s bungled legislative and mayoral vote will not be available for another 14 days, the president of the country’s electoral authority said on Wednesday, blaming the delay on “sabotage.” (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1NhFYts)
The United States expects a global deal to cut customs red tape and streamline import procedures to come into force this year, a senior trade official said. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1NhFRxT)
…and the rest
Slovenia’s parliament voted Tuesday to legalise same-sex marriages and grant such unions equal rights to those of heterosexual couples. (AFP http://yhoo.it/1w4tyQc)
New guidelines from the World Health Organization are enough to kill anyone’s sugar high. The U.N. health agency says the world is eating too much sugar and people should slash their intake to just six to 12 teaspoons per day — an amount that could be exceeded with a single can of soda. (AP http://yhoo.it/1NhFMdD)
Deaths, economic damage and other negative impacts from disasters have caused losses equivalent to 42 million life years annually since 1980, a measure that is comparable to the burden of tuberculosis worldwide, the United Nations said. (TRF http://yhoo.it/1GUc6im)
Opinion/Blogs
Meet a 2015er:  Emilia Saiz is the deputy secretary general of United Cities and Local Government. (UN Dispatch http://bit.ly/1ElsCs4)
A murderer and rapist’s views reflect those of many in India (AP http://yhoo.it/1NhFALu)
SDGs in need of rescue: Part 2 (Open The Echo Chamber http://bit.ly/1NhMKPV)
What would persuade the aid business to ‘think and work politically’? (From Poverty to Power http://bit.ly/1GUljXU)
Let’s Grant Women Land Rights and Power Our Future (Inter Press Service http://bit.ly/1DWkvRw)
What ‘cultural cleansing’ looks like under the Islamic State (GlobalPost http://bit.ly/1Fb73ZC)
Sustainable development goals must fulfil Beijing’s vision for women (Guardian http://bit.ly/1Fb7lQ9)
Reforming Mental Health in India (Inter Press Service http://bit.ly/1CxUABG)
Tea Tuesdays: Kenyan Farmers See Green In The Color Purple (NPR http://n.pr/1CxUytE)
Bill Easterly’s take on the SDGs (Devex http://bit.ly/1wIBmYp)
The Real World: Developing countries (WhyDev http://bit.ly/1M6Lmw0)
Is this the maturation of politics in Lesotho? (Africa is a Country http://bit.ly/1NhM2Cf)
New developments with the pitfalls and the promise of subjective welfare (Impact Evaluations http://bit.ly/1NhMtfN)

Discussion
comments…

South America

What are the needs?
South America is highly exposed to natural disasters such as landslides, earthquakes and tsunamis. Floods and droughts are recurrent in the region. These phenomena affect thousands and underline the vulnerability of populations living below the poverty line, as well as those in remote areas with limited access to services, especially indigenous groups. When a disaster occurs, the main needs of the affected population are temporary shelter, food, clean water, primary health care, household items and clothes.
How are we helping?
Since 1994, the EU’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO) has provided €182.8 million in humanitarian aid to South America, excluding the funds allocated to Colombia due to the armed conflict.
Emergency response
After the 2014 flooding in Bolivia and Paraguay, the EU allocated almost €1 million to help the most affected populations with shelter, safe water, and plants and seeds for farmers to regain their livelihoods. In Bolivia, support to health services once the water receded was part of the EU response.
Following the floods in 2013, the EU released €1.2 million to help bring relief to the victims in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. The previous rainy season in 2012 also caused flooding in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru, and the EU allocated €5.6 milion to fund humanitarian operations.
The EU has assisted in all major disasters in the region, such as in 2010, when an 8.8 magnitude earthquake followed by a tsunami killed 500 people and damaged or destroyed 370 000 houses in Chile. The EU gave €3 million in emergecy funding for temporary shelter, mobile hospitals and telecommunications, and stepped up its disaster preparedness activities in Chile. The EU has also intervened to respond to dengue in areas of Bolivia and Peru. 
Preparing communities for future disasters
Besides helping in emergencies, ECHO works to empower communities and local disaster response teams, to be better prepared to face natural hazards and take measures which allow them to prevent a hazard from becoming a disaster. This is mainly done through the Disaster Preparedness Programme (DIPECHO). DIPECHO works by identifying the risks first, and then taking simple and inexpensive measures to minimise them, hence reducing the impact of natural phenomena. These include strengthening emergency response capacities, improving infrastructures, and conducting awareness-raising campaigns.
The EU has invested €67.1 million, more than one third of its humanitarian funds for South America, in disaster preparedness activities across the region. The 2013-2014 programme targets communities in 10 countries – Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela – with an allocation of €14.55 million for disaster preparedness projects and operations to improve resilience against droughts.